Issue 67, december 2014
Across the world, the need to integrate information and communication technologies into education has become self-evident as well as a major factor in the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Yet this observation raises questions. Do digital technologies enable pupils to learn better and teachers to teach better? Do they lead to a renewal of pedagogical practices and a redefinition of teaching? How do they alter the role of school?
To begin answering these questions, issue 67 of the Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres examines nine radically different contexts, from England to South Korea by way of the United States, Australia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, the Netherlands and France.
The analyses draw on classroom observations, school initiatives and surveys and present policies and action plans implemented at national level. These case studies are accompanied by an annotated bibliography that provides a summary of recent literature on the subject.
The variety of situations analysed provides an original perspective on the changes that are underway. The authors all underline the importance of the responsibility conferred to teachers and schools in integrating digital technologies into education. The most advanced countries in this area are those that have reconsidered pedagogy while examining the functioning of the education system.
The issue is coordinated by Bernard Cornu and Jean-Pierre Véran.
Introduction [pdf - 776 Ko]
Le numérique et l’éducation dans un monde qui change : une révolution ?
Bernard Cornu, Jean-Pierre Véran
Connected learning at school in the United States
Matthew H. Rafalow
Schools in the United States are poised to teach important 21st-century technology literacies. New theoretical paradigms like “connected learning” argue that digital technologies provide essential supports for learning as young people pursue their interests online among peers. Despite the capacity for sharing and collaboration on many new platforms, schools set the terms of their use. The author shows how two schools using the same innovative technology offer two different approaches to connected learning. Schools must ensure that young people are both allowed and encouraged to be agents as they pursue learning experiences on new technology platforms.
The promise of digital learning
The case of an English school
Drawing on his experience as a head teacher, the author considers some key questions about the impact of digital technologies on teaching, learning and the institutions of learning, and recommends an approach based on putting educational aims and pedagogical experience at the heart of any application of technology in education. He outlines objectives that aim to educate focused, organised, curious and thoughtful learners in the spirit of cooperation.
Digital technologies: Australian teachers interpreting a new curriculum
Nicholas Reynolds, Dianne P. Chambers
A new digital technologies curriculum is about to be introduced in Australian schools. This article focuses on a pilot project that required teachers to implement this new curriculum. Through an examination of the units of work that were developed, the authors identified three broad approaches to the curriculum. The article presents these different approaches and their implications in terms of teacher readiness and knowledge.
Integrating ICT pedagogy in developing countries
The case of Ethiopia
Dessalegn Mequanint, Dagmawi Lemma
For developing countries like Ethiopia, transforming the education system digitally brings huge challenges, due to sparse Internet penetration and fragile telecommunication infrastructures, among other things. This article draws on the findings of a recent study: only 20% of secondary schools are connected to the Internet, and information and communication technologies (ICT) have only recently been introduced into the core secondary curriculum, primarily to teach pupils the basics of everyday computer software. ICT’s potential to promote continuous learning both in secondary as well as higher education is still largely unexploited.
Access to information technology infrastructure among Nigerian students
Sodiya Adesina Simeon, Aborisade Dada Olaniyi, Gbadebo Adegbuyi
This article examines access to information and communication technologies (ICT) infrastructures among Nigerian students. It is based on a study of 15,000 undergraduate students from thirty universities in south-west Nigeria. The findings reveal that while most students use computers and the Internet to gather information, only 38.09% have a personal computer and use it on a daily basis, while 9.8% have access to e-library resources. In addition, 74.8% of the students do not have access to the Internet on their campus. For this reason, lecturers in Nigerian universities should present lecture materials in ICT formats and give their students assignments that require the use of ICT.
The multimedia generation and Argentina’s “Schools and Media” programme
The author first examines the characteristics of contemporary youth culture and shows the need to integrate popular culture into all education systems if we wish to lessen the divide between school culture and youth culture. In Latin American societies, where the digital divide remains wide, schools alone can (and must) ensure a better distribution of information and knowledge. The Argentinean Ministry for Education’s “Schools and Media” programme aims to reinforce pupils’ social and civic schooling and cultural capital in order to make pupils sensitive to social problems, discerning about information and the messages they receive, autonomous in their decisions and engaged.
Digital technologies in schools: evolution or revolution
A survey of current thinking in France – Round table
François Bocquet, Éric Bruillard, Bernard Cornu, Joël Guignolet, Daniel Moatti, Jean-Pierre Véran
This debate between experts and practitioners reveals the main areas of discussion and divergence: the gap between the long timeframe of school and the digital immediacy of youth, tensions surrounding the misuse of technologies, but also teamwork, project development and an enriched culture of humanism. Digital technologies are disrupting school’s certainties, organisation and equipment. According to the speakers, the teaching of digital technologies cannot be reduced to a single discipline and requires a multisectoral approach to digital literacy – one that combines the responsible use of equipment, knowledge of major digital concepts and the development of scientific, ethical and philosophical reflections.
ICT in the Dutch education system: the “Four in Balance” model
In the Netherlands, a national agreement to improve the content and results of education stipulates that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is a key factor in achieving this aim. The ambitions for ICT usage are threefold: personalising teaching, improving the professional behaviour of teachers and obtaining better results from the educational process. Responsibility for the use of ICT lies with schools. A “Four in Balance” model has therefore been developed and aims to achieve a balance between the school’s vision, the professional development of teachers, digital content itself and infrastructures.
Multi-directional approaches to the digital school in Korea
Hye Jeong Kim, Hyeoncheol Kim
Digital education has been a priority for all national and local governments in Korea for over twenty years. This is because digital skills and resources are essential to success in a “knowledge society” and creativity-based economy. After the implementation of blueprints and infrastructures in all schools and classrooms, emphasis has been placed on the quality of education via organisations tasked with developing digital resources and training teachers on how to integrate ICT into their classroom practices. ICT teaching has recently become compulsory in lower secondary schools. This proactive education policy, which has been undertaken with the support of major Korean multinationals, is responding to social expectations. Difficulties remain, however, namely the excessive burden of university entrance exams and the fears expressed by some families about the impact of these technologies on their children’s health.