n° 74, april 2017
In the early twenty-first century, the massive need for teachers – who, given the rise of mass education, themselves teach highly heterogeneous groups – means it is necessary to get to know these teachers better. Who are the new teachers of today, how are they trained, how do they discover the profession, and how are they integrated into the school or institution where they work?
Through eight case studies and an OECD article, this dossier highlights a shared demand for professionalization, despite very different contexts. This demand remains paradoxical for various reasons. The authors also underline the crucial importance of support in school and the political stakes of the professional development of teachers.
In many countries one can observe a diversification of the pathways of beginning teachers and a phenomenon of professional drop-out linked to the material and symbolic conditions of practising this profession. The ongoing reorganizations of the teaching profession, as they appear in the contributions, confront de facto the political models of education of contemporary societies.
An issue coordinated by Patrick Rayou, Université Paris 8, and Jean-Pierre Véran, IA-IPR honoraire
Machines, données et apprentissage : relations et enjeux
Update on international education news
Le Canada dans le PISA 2015 : une aventure renouvelée au sein d’épreuves internationales
Insights into international education systems
Mohamed Salem Ould Maouloud
L’éducation islamique non-formelle mahadra de Mauritanie
De la recherche en éducation aux pratiques éducatives : une comparaison internationale des usages de l’Evidence-based education
Public New Public Management and the Reform of Education, Helen M. Gunter, Emiliano Grimaldi, David Hall & Roberto Seprieri (Eds), Londres, Routledge, 2016
Les écoles et leur réputation, Hugues Draelants et Xavier Dumay (Dir.), Louvain-la-Neuve, De Boeck, 2016
Enfantillages outillés. Un atelier sur la machine, Fanny Béguery et Adrien Malcor, L’Arachnéen /RADO, 2016
Becoming a teacher today: Increasing uncertainties?
Patrick Rayou, Jean-Pierre Véran
In the early twenty-first century, the massive need for teachers – who, given the rise of mass education, themselves teach highly heterogeneous groups – means it is necessary to get to know these teachers better. Who are the new teachers of today, how are they trained, how do they discover the profession, and how are they integrated into the school or institution where they work? Through eight case studies and an OECD article, this dossier highlights a shared demand for professionalization, despite very different contexts. This demand remains paradoxical for various reasons. The authors also underline the crucial importance of support in school and the political stakes of the professional development of teachers. In many countries one can observe a diversification of the pathways of beginning teachers and a phenomenon of professional drop-out linked to the material and symbolic conditions of practising this profession. The ongoing reorganizations of the teaching profession, as they appear in the contributions, confront de facto the political models of education of contemporary societies.
Being a beginning teacher in an education system traversed by multiple frames of reference
The case of Rwanda
This article considers beginning teachers’ experience in Rwanda. It shows that the first contact with a class is a shock shared by teachers in all systems, even though their sources of frustration are different. In the Rwandan context, the fundamental source of difficulty has to do with the transposition of academic knowledge into taught knowledge, in a context in which several languages are used, often with a poor level of command. To get by, the teachers first conceptualize the new subject matter in their mother tongue and then convert it into languages learnt later in life. The first language of socialization is therefore fundamental in the organization of cognition. The new curricula are often reinterpreted according to the attainments of the past.
Becoming a teacher in the U.S.: Policies, standards, and tensions
Jon Snyder, A. Lin Goodwin
Three levels of the educational ecosystem influence the path of becoming a teacher in the United States: the federal level, the state level, and the local level. Each of these levels uses two major levers that influence the path of becoming a teacher: (a) standards for teaching and (b) standards for teacher education. In this paper we address the influence at each of the three relevant levels of the educational ecosystem. We conclude with a discussion of enduring tensions in an individual’s path towards becoming a teacher in the United States.
On the training of teachers and the extension of rights in Argentina
This article examines a contemporary issue that interrogates traditions in terms of teacher training in Argentina. On the one hand, it considers the interface between the incorporation of “new” adolescents and young adults into the secondary level as a consequence of the rise of mass education, and, on the other, the increasing development of teacher training, which must meet the challenge of training teachers with more circuitous academic backgrounds to practise their profession at an increasingly heterogeneous and complex secondary level.
The choice of the profession
Typology of the pathways leading to teaching in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland
This article considers the choice of teaching as a stage in a “career” in the sense of Hughes’ interactionist sociology (1996), and more particularly as a stage in a process of entry into the world of work. The content analysis of 45 retrospective interviews with individuals at the end of their teacher training reveals three main biographical pathways that lead to the profession: linear or direct pathways; indirect pathways, or pathways of uncertainty; and “second career” pathways. The text succinctly elucidates the characteristics of each of these typical pathways.
Becoming and remaining a teacher in Niger
In Niger, the professional drop-out of teachers recorded in recent years can mainly be explained by the low quality of human resources management. The absence of career development prospects contributes to demotivating teachers, a large number of whom leave teaching as soon as the first opportunity arises, considering teaching a way of earning a living for want of a better alternative. The urgent improvement of the quality of pupils’ learning and school attainment necessarily involves a significant improvement to the conditions of the recruitment, career development and retention of teachers.
Shortage of teachers and difficulties in basic education in Shanghai
Against a backdrop of a growing shortage of teaching staff in China, a high drop-out rate among new teachers can be observed, including in private schools. This phenomenon can be explained mainly by an imbalance between a relatively low salary and social status compared to the level of education required and the intensity of the workload, in a context of heavy family expectations. In Shanghai, graduates with a non-standard teaching qualificationnow represent 60% of new teachers, and the traditional model of tutoring is becoming ineffective. To resolve these difficulties, the government of Shanghai has put in place a standardized training programme for trainees, which combines theoretical training, immersive training in schools dispensing basic education, on-the-job training in the schools to which teachers are first posted, and self-study. Despite these measures, numerous difficulties persist in initial teacher training.
The welcome given to new teachers in French middle and high schools
The professional integration phase is crucial to teachers’ professional development. Besides the role of peers, the research clearly raises the role of head teachers in this career-entry process of integration. In France, their participation, where it exists, is not formalized but takes place on an “ad hoc basis”. In a context in which the difficulties faced by beginning teachers during training and at the start of their career are numerous and make their professional integration difficult, this near absence of a welcome procedure may seem paradoxical. However, it can be partly explained by the strong separation that still exists in France between administrative matters and pedagogy.
Newly qualified teachers in Finland – Needs and ways of professional support for teacher’s work
Vilhelmiina Harju, Hannele Niemi, Auli Toom
Newly qualified teachers have been in the focus of research and educational policy-making relatively intensively due to the important first years in the profession and the identified challenges related to these years. The reputation of Finnish educational system and success of Finnish pupils in PISA measurements as well as appreciation of teacher education and profession in Finland have raised the international interest towards the situation of teachers in Finland. This article elaborates especially the professional context and situation of newly qualified teachers in Finland, presents their needs and ways of professional support in their early career years as well as elaborates the strengths and areas of development related to these aspects. Newly qualified teachers have the full professional responsibility in their work when they enter to the profession and relatively little formal support provided for the work. Due to the demanding and important work of teachers, the professional concerns and needs of early career teachers should be considered carefully. Adequate and appropriate professional support for newly qualified teachers provides them with relevant contextual resources, strengthens their self-confidence as well as paves their way for continuing and staying in the teacher profession.
New teachers’ perceived preparedness and professional development needs
Findings from TALIS 2013
Yoon Young Lee
International studies have highlighted the importance of teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and preparedness on student learning and teacher retention. For new teachers – defined here as those with 3 years’ experience or fewer – quality pre-service and in-service education are the building blocks of a successful and rewarding career in teaching. Drawing on data from the Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development’s (OECD) Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013, this paper compares new and experienced teachers’ perceived level of preparedness in content, pedagogy and classroom practice of the subject field(s) they teach, in addition to their reported levels of professional development needs in 14 other areas of professional development. The author concludes that linking content knowledge with pedagogical competencies and providing quality practical experiences in the classroom are integral to helping new teachers prepare for their career.